Head of state: Viktor Yanukovich (replaced Viktor Yushchenko in February)
Head of government: Mykola Azarov (replaced Yuliya Timoshenko in March)
Death penalty: abolitionist in practice
Population: 45.4 million
Life expectancy: 68.6 years
Under-5 mortality (m/f): 18/13 per 1,000
Adult literacy: 99.7 per cent
There were reports of torture and other ill-treatment in prisons and police custody. Prisoners and criminal suspects received inadequate medical care. Human rights defenders were physically attacked and faced harassment from law enforcement officers. Refugees and asylum-seekers were threatened with forcible return and other human rights violations. Police discriminated against ethnic minorities and peaceful demonstrators were detained and subjected to violence.
Torture and other ill-treatmentAllegations continued of torture and other ill-treatment in police custody. In March, the Human Rights Department within the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which had monitored police detention, was closed. It was replaced with a smaller division without a monitoring remit.